Mind is the product of thoughts which are difficult to restrain for they are subtle and fickle. A thought which is well guarded by a controlled mind brings happiness. In order to understand the mind, we need to understand how it works.
Mental states are classified in five groups
- Mudha [Dull] – It is the state of mind when it appears to be foolish, dull and stupid. It is confounded and at at loss to know what it wants and here the Tamasic Guna is predominant.
- Ksipta [Disturbed or Wavering] – In this state, mind is a completely disturbed, mental forces are scattered, being disarray and in a state of neglect. Mind hankers after objects, usually when Rajasic guna is predominant.
- Viksipta [Distracted] – When mind is agitated and distracted, however it has capacity to enjoy the fruit of one’s efforts, but the desires are not marshaled and controlled. In this state, Sattva guna is starts.
- Ekagra [One Pointed Attention] – When mind is closely attentive and mental faculties are concentrated on a single point only, here the Sattva Guna is predominant. The ekagra person has superior intellectual powers and know exactly what he wants, so he uses all his powers to achieve the purpose.
- Niruddha [Controlled or Mastered]– In this state, mind transcends beyond intellect and ego and merges with the Self
Source: Commentary on Patanjali Yoga Sutra by Vyasa, Light on Pranayama
First three state of mind is usually experienced in daily life more often. Fourth state can be also experienced when you are working so deeply on a project or doing a practice, fully immersed into that no other thoughts comes in mind.
However, last two states of mind is very important states. If you are practicing meditation, these two states of mind is gradually realized. In the state of Ekarga, when mind starts to fix on one point or object, this state is called Dharana, and when it continue to stay one pointed, this is called Dhyana or Meditation. And, when mind reaches to the state of Niruddha, this is the state of Samadhi, the state of bliss.